class: center, middle # Scrum Software developers role-play rugby. --- # Agenda 1. [Agile manifesto](#manifesto) 2. [Scrum framework](#scrum) 3. [Roles](#roles) 4. [Events](#events) 5. [Communications](#communications) 6. [Team harmony](#harmony) 7. [Conclusions](#conclusions) --- name: manifesto # Agile manifesto -- ## Concept In 2001, at The Lodge at the Snowbird Ski Resort in Utah, 17 prestigious developers got together to talk shop. -- - They emerged shortly thereafter with the **Agile Manifesto**, a very short document. --- template: manifesto ## The text > We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. > > Through this work we have come to value: > > - _Individuals and interactions_ over processes and tools > - _Working software_ over comprehensive documentation > - _Customer collaboration_ over contract negotiation > - _Responding to change_ over following a plan > > That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. > > -[Agile Manifesto](http://agilemanifesto.org) --- template: manifesto ## Implementation The Agile manifesto inspired a world of developers, but there were no details on how to implement it. -- - Various practical implementation frameworks quickly emerged. -- - [Scrum](https://www.scrum.org/resources/what-is-scrum/) is one of these. --- name: scrum # Scrum framework -- template: scrum ## Concept The Scrum framework is a recipe for achieving agile development by prescribing a strict set of... -- - Roles -- - Events -- - Artifacts --- name: roles # Roles --- template: roles ## Concept Scrum defines four distinct roles: -- - Product owner -- - Scrum master -- - Developer -- - Stakeholder -- It is possible, although not adviseable, for one person to perform more than one of these roles. --- template: roles ## Product owner The Product Owner represents the business interests within the team. -- - The Product Owner is the team member who communicates directly with the client. -- - The Product Owner is the team member who maintains and prioritizes the list of features to be implemented. --- template: roles ## Scrum master The Scrum Master represents the Scrum framework within the team. -- - The Scrum Master is a "[servant leader](https://www.benning.army.mil/infantry/199th/OCS/content/pdf/The%20Servant%20as%20Leader.pdf)", not a manager. -- - The Scrum Master ensures the team is following the Scrum framework. --- template: roles ## Developer Developers implement the work laid out by the Product Owner. -- - Developers collaborate with the Product Owner to properly define and scope the work. -- - Developers are autonomous and decide in what manner to do the work. --- template: roles ## Stakeholder Stakeholders are people external to the team who have an important voice. -- - Stakeholders could be the client, or executives in the development company. -- - Stakeholders can cause problems if not kept in close communication with the team. --- name: events # Events -- ## Concept Scrum defines seven ritual events for different purposes: -- - Backlog creation -- - Sprint planning -- - Daily scrum -- - Backlog grooming -- - Sprint review -- - Stakeholder demo -- - Team retrospective --- template: events ## Sprint timeline ![Scrum events timeline](../images/scrum_events.png) --- template: events ## Backlog creation The Product Backlog is a list of features that the project is intended to implement. These featuress are written in a specific style and called "**User Stories**". -- - The Product Owner, by speaking with Stakeholders, drafts and maintains the Product Backlog at the start of a project. -- - The features in the Product Backlog are ordered, with the most important User Stories on top of the list. --- template: events ## Backlog creation ### User stories User Stories are written in the following form: > As a **\_\_\_**, I want to **\_\_\_**, so that **\_\_\_** -- - the first blank is filled in with a user role or type of user -- - the second blank is filled in with a goal -- - the third blank is filled in with a reason -- These are written in non-technical language by the Product Owner. --- template: events ## Backlog creation ### User stories User Stories should follow the _INVEST_ acronym: - **I**ndependent - user stories do not depend on one-another -- - **N**egotiable - can be canceled or changed at any time -- - **V**aluable - meaningful stories -- - **E**stimable - must be descriptive and small enough to be able to easily estimate work for it. -- - **S**mall - story is small enough to be completed in one sprint -- - **T**estable - story contains enough clarity to be able to easily design a test for it --- template: events ## Backlog creation ### User stories User Stories each can have a set of **Acceptance Criteria**. -- - These provide additional detail about what specific features are necessary for the user story to be satisfied. -- - This represents the minimum requirements for the User Story to be considered done. -- - The Product Owner and Developers collaborativeley come up with this list of requirements. --- template: events ## Backlog creation ### User stories User Stories each have an **Estimation of Effort** -- - The Developers determine how much work is involved in the user story. -- - **Planning Poker** is a popular technique for determining this. --- template: events ## Backlog creation ### Spikes Sometimes work needs to be done that is not end-user-facing, such as setting up a particular development environment. -- Such a piece of work is called a _Spike_. --- template: events ## Sprint planning In Scrum, work is divided into increments called "sprints". Sprints typically last several weeks. -- - At the start of each Sprint, the entire team (including Product Owner) gets together and decides which features (i.e. User Stories) to work on in this Sprint. -- - The Product Owner presents the list of User Stories in the Product Backlog, from top to bottom. -- - The team discusses and collaboratively agrees on which User Stories to do in this Sprint. -- - The Developers break up each User Story into discrete Tasks - units of work that are doable by one developer in about one day. --- template: events ## Sprint planning The team discusses and collaboratively agrees on which User Stories to do in this Sprint. These are added to the Sprint Backlog. -- - The Developers break up each User Story in the Sprint Backlog into discrete Tasks - units of work that are doable by one developer in about one day. -- - Each task is assigned to a specific developer. -- - The Developers get to work. --- template: events ## Daily Scrum Every day, the Scrum Master and Developers get together to discuss status. Each Developer answers three questions: -- - What have you done since last time? -- - What are you doing now? -- - Is there anything blocking your progress? -- Blocking problems are addressed by the Scrum Master, who must seek help externally. --- # Events ## Backlog Grooming Each Sprint, the Product Owner maintains the Product Backlog - adding new User Stories, modifying old ones, etc. -- - At the mid-point of each Sprint, the entire team (including Product Owner) gets together to discuss these additions. -- - The team discusses the new User Stories, and the Product Manager orders them appropriately in the Product Backlog. -- - No User Stories are ever added to the current Sprint, but they can be addressed in subsequent Sprints. --- # Events ## Sprint review At the end of each Sprint, the entire team (including Product Owner) meet to discuss the work that has been done. -- - Unfinished User Stories are returned to the Product Backlog. -- - The team agrees what is good enough to show to the Stakeholders. --- # Events ## Stakeholder demo The entire team demonstrates the work to the Stakeholders. -- - The Product Owner often leads the demo, althogh may do so, if helpful. -- - Stakeholders give feedback, suggest additions, changes, etc. -- - The Product Owner adds any new User Stories requested by the Stakeholders to the Product Backlog. --- # Events ## Team retrospective The team discusses what happened in this sprint. -- - How did the demo go? -- - What worked well? -- - What went poorly? -- - How can we improve next time? --- name: communications # Communications --- # Communications -- ## Concept It is expected in Scrum that team members and Stakeholders always know the status of work currently being done. -- - The primary document outlining the status of thee project is the Task Board. --- # Communications ## Task Board The Task board divides the activities in the current Sprint into the simple categories, such as: -- - **Sprint Backlog** - list of all the User Stories that are being worked on this Sprint. -- - **To Do** - a list of all the Tasks that have not yet been started, -- - **In Process** - a list of the Tasks that are currently in-progress. -- - **Awaiting Review** - a list of the Tasks that are Awaiting review by another team member. -- - **Done** - a list of the Tasks that have been reviewed and are considered complete. -- The Task Board must be kept up-to-date at all times by the Product Owner and Developers. --- name: harmony # Team harmony -- ## Concept It is critical that all team members be able to see the accurate status of all Tasks by all Developers. -- - It is a good idea to draft a set of **Team Norms** that govern team member behavior. -- - The entire team will notice when a member is not performing their duties, since it will obviously come up in the Dialy Scrum meetings and reviews of the Task Board. -- - It is understood that the entire team will inform the boss early if any team member is not performing their duties, since it is a blocking problem. --- name: conclusions # Conclusions Thank you. Bye.